Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-7720, USA
Received: 22 Jan 2016 – Discussion started: 24 Feb 2016
Abstract. In this study, we construct a seven-dimensional Lorenz model (7DLM) to discuss the impact of an extended nonlinear feedback loop on solutions' stability and illustrate the hierarchical scale dependence of chaotic solutions. Compared to the 5DLM, the 7DLM includes two additional high wavenumber modes that are selected based on an analysis of the nonlinear temperature advection term, a Jacobian term (J(ψ, θ)), where, ψ and θ represent the streamfunction and temperature perturbations, respectively. Fourier modes that represent temperature in the 7DLM can be categorized into three major scales as the primary (the largest scale), secondary, and tertiary (the smallest scale) modes. Further extension of the nonlinear feedback loop within the 7DLM can provide negative nonlinear feedback to stabilize solutions, thus leading to a much larger critical value for the Rayleigh parameter (rc ∼ 116.9) for the onset of chaos, as compared to an rc of 42.9 for the 5DLM as well as an rc of 24.74 for the 3DLM. The rc is determined by an analysis of ensemble Lyapunov exponents (eLEs) with a Prandtl number (σ) of 10. To examine the dependence of rc on the value of the Prandtl number, a linear stability analysis is performed near the nontrivial critical point using a wide range of the Rayleigh parameter (40 ≤ r ≤ 195) and the Prandtl number (5 ≤ σ ≤ 25). Then an eLE analysis is conducted using selected values of the Prandtl number. The linear stability analysis is done by solving for the analytical solutions of the critical points, by linearizing the 7DLM with respect to the analytical solutions, and by calculating the eigenvalues of the linearized system. Within the range of (5 ≤ σ ≤ 25), the 7DLM requires a larger rc for the onset of chaos than the 5DLM.
Revised: 10 Jun 2016 – Accepted: 23 Jun 2016 – Published: 08 Jul 2016
In addition to the negative nonlinear feedback illustrated and emulated by the quasi-equilibrium state solutions for high wavenumber modes, the 7DLM reveals the hierarchical scale dependence of chaotic solutions. For chaotic solutions with r = 120, the Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) between the primary and secondary modes (i.e., Z and Z1) and between the secondary and tertiary modes (i.e., Z1 and Z2) are 0.988 and 0.998, respectively. Here, Z, Z1, and Z2 represent the time-varying amplitudes of the primary, secondary, and tertiary modes, respectively. High PCCs indicate a strong linear relationship among the modes at various scales and a hierarchy of scale dependence. Future work will be undertaken to examine how higher-dimensional LMs may produce a larger critical value for the Rayleigh parameter for the onset of chaos and reveal stronger hierarchical scale dependence.
Shen, B.-W.: Hierarchical scale dependence associated with the extension of the nonlinear feedback loop in a seven-dimensional Lorenz model, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 23, 189-203, doi:10.5194/npg-23-189-2016, 2016.